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Tuesday, December 3, 2013

MVC Interview Questions and Answers Part 1

For MVC Interview Questions Part 2 refer below link:
1.      What is MVC?
MVC is a framework pattern that splits an application’s implementation logic into three component roles: models, views, and controllers.
·         Model: The business entity on which the overall application operates. Many applications use a persistent storage mechanism (such as a database) to store data. MVC does not specifically mention the data access layer because it is understood to be encapsulated by the Model.
·         View: The user interface that renders the Model into a form of interaction.
·         Controller: Handles a request from a View and updates the Model that results in a change of the Model's state.
To implement MVC in .NET, we need mainly three classes (View, Controller and the Model).
2.      What are the new features of MVC2?
ASP.NET MVC 2 was released in March 2010. Its main features are:
·         Introduction of UI helpers with automatic scaffolding with customizable templates
·         Attribute-based model validation on both client and server
·         Strongly typed HTML helpers
·         Improved Visual Studio tooling
·         There were also lots of API enhancements and “pro” features, based on feedback from developers building a variety of applications on ASP.NET MVC 1, such as:
o    Support for partitioning large applications into areas
o    Asynchronous controllers support
o    Support for rendering subsections of a page/site using Html.RenderAction
o    Lots of new helper functions, utilities, and API enhancements

3.      What are the new features of MVC3?
ASP.NET MVC 3 shipped just 10 months after MVC 2 in Jan 2011. Some of the top features in MVC 3 included:
·         The Razor view engine
·         Support for .NET 4 Data Annotations
·         Improved model validation
·         Greater control and flexibility with support for dependency resolution and global action filters
·         Better JavaScript support with unobtrusive JavaScript, jQuery Validation, and JSON binding
·         Use of NuGet to deliver software and manage dependencies throughout the platform

4.      What are the new features of MVC4?
Following are the top features of MVC4:
·         ASP.NET Web API
·         Enhancements to default project templates
·         Mobile project template using jQuery Mobile
·         Display Modes
·         Task support for Asynchronous Controllers
·         Bundling and minification

5.      Explain “page lifecycle” of an ASP.NET MVC?
Following processes are performed by ASP.NET MVC page:
1.       App initialization
2.       Routing
3.       Instantiate and execute controller
4.       Locate and invoke controller action
5.       Instantiate and render view

6.      Advantages of MVC Framework?
Ø  Provides a clean separation of concerns between UI (Presentation layer), model (Transfer objects/Domain Objects/Entities) and Business Logic (Controller)
Ø  Easy to UNIT Test
Ø  Improved reusability of views/model. One can have multiple views which can point to the same model and vice versa
Ø  Improved structuring of the code

7.      What is Razor View Engine?
Razor is the first major update to render HTML in MVC3. Razor was designed specifically as a view engine syntax. It has one main focus: code-focused templating for HTML generation. Here’s how that same markup would be generated using Razor:
@model MvcMusicStore.Models.Genre

@{ViewBag.Title = "Browse Albums";}

<div class="genre">
<h3><em>@Model.Name</em> Albums</h3>
<ul id="album-list">
@foreach (var album in Model.Albums)
<a href="@Url.Action("Details", new { id = album.AlbumId })">
<img alt="@album.Title" src="@album.AlbumArtUrl" />
The Razor syntax is easier to type, and easier to read. Razor doesn’t have the XML-like heavy syntax of the Web Forms view engine.
8.      What is JSON Binding?
MVC 3 included JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) binding support via the new JsonValueProviderFactory enabling the action methods to accept and model-bind data in JSON format. This is especially useful in advanced Ajax scenarios like client templates and data binding that need to post data back to the server.
9.      What is Dependency Resolution?
MVC 3 introduced a new concept called a dependency resolver, which greatly simplified the use of dependency injection in your applications. This made it easier to decouple application components, making them more configurable and easier to test.
Support was added for the following scenarios:
Ø  Controllers (registering and injecting controller factories, injecting controllers)
Ø  Views (registering and injecting view engines, injecting dependencies into view pages)
Ø  Action filters (locating and injecting filters)
Ø  Model binders (registering and injecting)
Ø  Model validation providers (registering and injecting)
Ø  Model metadata providers (registering and injecting)
Ø  Value providers (registering and injecting)

10. What are Display Modes in MVC4?
Display modes use a convention-based approach to allow selecting different views based on the browser making the request. The default view engine first looks for views with names ending with .Mobile.cshtml when the browser’s user agent indicates a known mobile device. For example, if we have a generic view titled Index.cshtml and a mobile view titled Index.Mobile.cshtml, MVC 4 will automatically use the mobile view when viewed in a mobile browser.
Additionally, we can register your own custom device modes that will be based on your own custom criteria — all in just one code statement. For example, to register a WinPhone device mode that would serve views ending with .WinPhone.cshtml to Windows Phone devices, you’d use the following code in the Application_Start method of your Global.asax:
DisplayModeProvider.Instance.Modes.Insert(0, new DefaultDisplayMode("WinPhone")
ContextCondition = (context => context.GetOverriddenUserAgent().IndexOf
("Windows Phone OS", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) >= 0)

11. What is AuthConfig.cs in MVC4?
AuthConfig.cs is used to configure security settings, including sites for OAuth login.
12. What is BundleConfig.cs in MVC4?
BundleConfig.cs in MVC4 is used to register bundles used by the bundling and minification system. Several bundles are added by default, including jQuery, jQueryUI, jQuery validation, Modernizr, and default CSS references.
13. What is FilterConfig.cs in MVC4?
This is used to register global MVC filters. The only filter registered by default is the HandleErrorAttribute, but this is a great place to put other filter registrations.
14. What is RouteConfig.cs in MVC4?
RouteConfig.cs holds the granddaddy of the MVC config statements, Route configuration.
15. What is WebApiConfig.cs in MVC4?
Used to register Web API routes, as well as set any additional Web API configuration settings.

16. What’s new in adding controller in MVC4 application?
Previously (in MVC3 and MVC2), the Visual Studio Add Controller menu item only displayed when we right-clicked on the Controllers folder. However, the use of the Controllers folder was purely for organization. (MVC will recognize any class that implements the IController interface as a Controller, regardless of its location in your application.) The MVC 4 Visual Studio tooling has been modified to display the Add Controller menu item for any folder in your MVC project. This allows us to organize your controllers however you would like, perhaps separating them into logical groups or separating MVC and Web API controllers.
17. What are the software requirements of ASP.NET MVC4 application?
MVC 4 runs on the following Windows client operating systems:
·         Windows XP
·         Windows Vista
·         Windows 7
·         Windows 8
It runs on the following server operating systems:
·         Windows Server 2003
·         Windows Server 2008
·         Windows Server 2008 R2
MVC 4 development tooling is included with Visual Studio 2012 and can be installed on Visual Studio 2010 SP1/Visual Web Developer 2010 Express SP1.
18. What are the various types of Application Templates used to create an MVC4 application?
The various templates are as follows:
1.       The Internet Application template: This contains the beginnings of an MVC web application — enough so that you can run the application immediately after creating it and see a few pages. This template also includes some basic account management functions which run against the ASP.NET Membership.
2.       The Intranet Application template: The Intranet Application template was added as part of the ASP.NET MVC 3 Tools Update. It is similar to the Internet Application template, but the account management functions run against Windows accounts rather than the ASP.NET Membership system.
3.       The Basic template: This template is pretty minimal. It still has the basic folders, CSS, and MVC application infrastructure in place, but no more. Running an application created using the Empty template just gives you an error message.
Why use Basic template? The Basic template is intended for experienced MVC developers who want to set up and configure things exactly how they want them.
4.       The Empty template: The Basic template used to be called the Empty template, but developers complained that it wasn’t quite empty enough. With MVC 4, the previous Empty template was renamed Basic, and the new Empty template is about as empty as we can get. It has the assemblies and basic folder structure in place, but that’s about it.
5.       The Mobile Application template: The Mobile Application template is preconfigured with jQuery Mobile to jump-start creating a mobile only website. It includes mobile visual themes, a touch-optimized UI, and support for Ajax navigation.
6.       The Web API template: ASP.NET Web API is a framework for creating HTTP services. The Web API template is similar to the Internet Application template but is streamlined for Web API development. For instance, there is no user account management functionality, as Web API account management is often significantly different from standard MVC account management. Web API functionality is also available in the other MVC project templates, and even in non-MVC project types.
19. What are the default Top level directories created when adding MVC4 application?
Default Top level Directories are:
/Controllers        To put Controller classes that handle URL requests
/Models             To put classes that represent and manipulate data and business objects
/Views              To put UI template files that are responsible for rendering output like HTML.
/Scripts            To put JavaScript library files and scripts (.js)
/Images             To put images used in your site
/Content            To put CSS and other site content, other than scripts and images
/Filters            To put filter code.
/App_Data           To store data files you want to read/write
/App_Start          To put configuration code for features like Routing, Bundling, Web API.

20. What is namespace of ASP.NET MVC?
ASP.NET MVC namespaces as well as classes are located in assembly System.Web.Mvc.
21. What is System.Web.Mvc namespace?
This namespace contains classes and interfaces that support the MVC pattern for ASP.NET Web applications. This namespace includes classes that represent controllers, controller factories, action results, views, partial views, and model binders.
22. What is System.Web.Mvc.Ajax namespace?
System.Web.Mvc.Ajax namespace contains classes that support Ajax scripting in an ASP.NET MVC application. The namespace includes support for Ajax scripts and Ajax option settings as well.
23. What is System.Web.Mvc.Async namespace?
System.Web.Mvc.Async namespace contains classes and interfaces that support asynchronous actions in an ASP.NET MVC application.
24. What is System.Web.Mvc.Html namespace?
System.Web.Mvc.Html namespace contains classes that help render HTML controls in an MVC application. This namespace includes classes that support forms, input controls, links, partial views, and validation.
For MVC Interview Questions Part 2 refer below link:
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